Get An Education

Get an Education
Source: InternationalMan.com
Jeff Thomas
January 3, 2017

Back in the ’60s, an interviewer asked the “King of Folk Music”, Bob Dylan, what his goal in life was. Bob answered something to the effect of:

“I want to make enough money to go to college, so one day I can be somebody.”

Bob had a good sense of irony. And certainly, he was always more inclined to think outside the box than to follow the well-trodden path. That was part of what made him so interesting and part of what made him so successful. A similar sentiment was expressed in a song by his peer, Paul Simon:

“When I think back on all the crap I learned in high school, it’s a wonder I can think at all.”

In those days, just like today, the customary idea of success was that you attended university for a number of years, you received a degree, and then you would be given a job where you could wear a necktie and receive a salary that had an extra zero behind it.

Then, as now, that’s quite true for anyone who seeks a career in engineering, medicine, law, etc., but less so for virtually everyone else. Those who pursue a degree in gender studies or 18th-century French literature are likely to find that, after they graduate, they’ve learned little or nothing that translates into potential income.

Of course, universities value such courses highly and professors love to teach them. After all, they never really left school themselves. They went straight from being students to being teachers and never had to learn to be productive in the larger world. As such, they are the very worst advisors to students wondering what courses to take in order to one day seek employment.

This is not to say that such subjects are uninteresting; it’s just that employers don’t hire people because they’re interested in their courses. They hire them based upon whether they’ve acquired knowledge that’s applicable to their businesses.

There will always be a need for engineers, doctors and lawyers, but the pursuit of studies that stand little chance of producing a return may be a waste of a significant chunk (or all) of your parents’ savings, or may result in years of indebtedness in the form of a college loan. In addition, you could be wasting several prime years at a time when your energy and imagination are at a peak.

Recently I was asked my opinion by a young woman who was considering university. She’s not only bright, but sensible and organised beyond her years. My suggestion was that she enter a university in another country (away from her parents), and take some basic courses in business management, accounting, economics, etc. After a year, she should plan to drop out and travel the world for a year with a backpack. Her parents should give her enough money so that she’d be alright if she runs into unforeseen problems, but, aside from that, she should try to work her way around the world doing a variety of jobs. In doing so, she should follow her own choices and her own timetable.

Were she to do this, I believe she’d return home after the two years with the self-confidence, self-reliance and adaptability to take on virtually anything. Her “education” from that time would stay with her the rest of her life. As Albert Einstein stated,

“Education is not the learning of facts, but the training of the mind to think.”

Today, especially in the US, there’s a push toward the concept of everyone going to university, with some leaders and would-be leaders suggesting that university education should be available to all, for free. They don’t mention how it might be possible for the already-imposed-upon taxpayer to pay for this enormous additional cost, other than to “tax the rich some more”. (This is not exactly what makes up a viable business plan.)

Nor do they offer an opinion on what happens when the great majority of people have university degrees, but the great majority of jobs don’t require them. (Could it be that they’re imagining a society where no one accepts the job of collecting the garbage; where no one pursues a career as a fireman, a mechanic or a carpenter?)

In my own country…

Continue Reading At: InternationalMan.com

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Homeschooling Series – Reading – Sight Words – 201 -300

Source: AnalyticalSurvival
November 8, 2016

An ex-Green Beret father and his 4-year old son share the many lessons they’ve learned throughout their Homeschooling Journey. Enjoy! –GM

NOTE: If this preparedness topic does not necessarily pique your interest, please consider forwarding it to other parents who may possibly benefit from the content. Thanks for your support! –GM

Other videos in the series:

Homeschooling Series – Introduction – Setting Up An Area
Homeschooling Series – Geography – United States
Homeschooling Series – Geography – Africa
Homeschooling Series – Geography – Asia
Homeschooling Series – Geography – Europe
Homeschooling Series – Geography – South America & Canada
Homeschooling Series – Reading – Sight Words – 1 -100
Homeschooling Series – Reading – Sight Words – 101 -200

Homeschooling Series – Reading – Sight Words 1 – 100

Source: AnalyticalSurvival
November 7, 2016

An ex-Green Beret father and his 4-year old son share the many lessons they’ve learned throughout their Homeschooling Journey. Enjoy! –GM

NOTE: If this preparedness topic does not necessarily pique your interest, please consider forwarding it to other parents who may possibly benefit from the content. Thanks for your support! –GM

How A Generation Lost Its Common Culture

young graduates students group

Source: MindingTheCampus.org
Professor Patrick Deneen
February 2, 2016

My students are know-nothings. They are exceedingly nice, pleasant, trustworthy, mostly honest, well-intentioned, and utterly decent. But their brains are largely empty, devoid of any substantial knowledge that might be the fruits of an education in an inheritance and a gift of a previous generation. They are the culmination of western civilization, a civilization that has forgotten nearly everything about itself, and as a result, has achieved near-perfect indifference to its own culture.

It’s difficult to gain admissions to the schools where I’ve taught – Princeton, Georgetown, and now Notre Dame. Students at these institutions have done what has been demanded of them:  they are superb test-takers, they know exactly what is needed to get an A in every class (meaning that they rarely allow themselves to become passionate and invested in any one subject); they build superb resumes. They are respectful and cordial to their elders, though easy-going if crude with their peers. They respect diversity (without having the slightest clue what diversity is) and they are experts in the arts of non-judgmentalism (at least publically). They are the cream of their generation, the masters of the universe, a generation-in-waiting to run America and the world.

Related: The Chaos of College Curricula

But ask them some basic questions about the civilization they will be inheriting, and be prepared for averted eyes and somewhat panicked looks. Who fought in the Peloponnesian War? Who taught Plato, and whom did Plato teach? How did Socrates die? Raise your hand if you have read both the Iliad and the Odyssey. The Canterbury Tales? Paradise Lost? The Inferno?

Who was Saul of Tarsus? What were the 95 theses, who wrote them, and what was their effect? Why does the Magna Carta matter? How and where did Thomas Becket die? Who was Guy Fawkes, and why is there a day named after him? What did Lincoln say in his Second Inaugural? His first Inaugural? How about his third Inaugural?  What are the Federalist Papers?

Some students, due most often to serendipitous class choices or a quirky old-fashioned teacher, might know a few of these answers. But most students have not been educated to know them. At best, they possess accidental knowledge, but otherwise are masters of systematic ignorance. It is not their “fault” for pervasive ignorance of western and American history, civilization, politics, art and literature. They have learned exactly what we have asked of them – to be like mayflies, alive by happenstance in a fleeting present.

Related: Courses without Content

Our students’ ignorance is not a failing of the educational system – it is its crowning achievement. Efforts by several generations of philosophers and reformers and public policy experts — whom our students (and most of us) know nothing about — have combined to produce a generation of know-nothings. The pervasive ignorance of our students is not a mere accident or unfortunate but correctible outcome, if only we hire better teachers or tweak the reading lists in high school. It is the consequence of a civilizational commitment to civilizational suicide. The end of history for our students signals the End of History for the West.

During my lifetime, lamentation over student ignorance has been sounded by the likes of E.D. Hirsch, Allan Bloom, Mark Bauerlein and Jay Leno, among many others. But these lamentations have been leavened with the hope that appeal to our and their better angels might reverse the trend (that’s an allusion to Lincoln’s first inaugural address, by the way). E.D. Hirsch even worked up a self-help curriculum, a do-it yourself guide on how to become culturally literate, imbued with the can-do American spirit that cultural defenestration could be reversed by a good reading list in the appendix. Broadly missing is sufficient appreciation that this ignorance is the intended consequence of our educational system, a sign of its robust health and success.

Books for Book-o-Phobes

We have fallen into the bad and unquestioned habit of thinking that our educational system is broken, but it is working on all cylinders. What our educational system aims to produce is cultural amnesia, a wholesale lack of curiosity, history-less free agents, and educational goals composed of content-free processes and unexamined buzz-words like “critical thinking,” “diversity,” “ways of knowing,” “social justice,” and “cultural competence.”

Our students are the achievement of a systemic commitment to producing individuals without a past for whom the future is a foreign country, cultureless ciphers who can live anywhere and perform any kind of work without inquiring about its purposes or ends, perfected tools for an economic system that prizes “flexibility” (geographic, interpersonal, ethical).

In such a world, possessing a culture, a history, an inheritance, a commitment to a place and particular people, specific forms of gratitude and indebtedness (rather than a generalized and deracinated commitment to “social justice”), a strong set of ethical and moral norms that assert definite limits to what one ought and ought not to do (aside from being “judgmental”) are hindrances and handicaps.

Regardless of major or course of study, the main object of modern education is to sand off remnants of any cultural or historical specificity and identity that might still stick to our students, to make them perfect company men and women for a modern polity and economy that penalizes deep commitments. Efforts first to foster appreciation for “multi-culturalism” signaled a dedication to eviscerate any particular cultural inheritance, while the current fad of “diversity” signals thoroughgoing commitment to de-cultured and relentless homogenization.

We Must Know…What?

Above all, the one overarching lesson that students receive is the true end of education: the only essential knowledge is that know ourselves to be radically autonomous selves within a comprehensive global system with a common commitment to mutual indifference. Our commitment to mutual indifference is what binds us together as a global people. Any remnant of a common culture would interfere with this prime directive:  a common culture would imply that we share something thicker, an inheritance that we did not create, and a set of commitments that imply limits and particular devotions.

Ancient philosophy and practice praised as an excellent form of government a res publica – a devotion to public things, things we share together. We have instead created the world’s first Res Idiotica – from the Greek word idiotes, meaning “private individual.” Our education system produces solipsistic, self-contained selves whose only public commitment is an absence of commitment to a public, a common culture, a shared history. They are perfectly hollowed vessels, receptive and obedient, without any real obligations or devotions.

They won’t fight against anyone, because that’s not seemly, but they won’t fight for anyone or anything either. They are living in a perpetual Truman Show, a world constructed yesterday that is nothing more than a set for their solipsism, without any history or trajectory.

I love my students – like any human being, each has enormous potential and great gifts to bestow upon the world. But I weep for them, for what is rightfully theirs but hasn’t been given. On our best days, I discern their longing and anguish and I know that their innate human desire to know who they are, where they have come from, where they ought to go, and how they ought to live will always reassert itself. But even on those better days, I can’t help but hold the hopeful thought that the world they have inherited – a world without inheritance, without past, future, or deepest cares – is about to come tumbling down, and that this collapse would be the true beginning of a real education.

Read More At: MindingTheCampus.org


Patrick Deneen is David A. Potenziani Memorial Associate Professor of Constitutional Studies at Notre Dame.

Tired Of Amairkhun Edgykayshun? Consider Moving To Finland…

TIRED OF AMAIRKUHN EDGYKAYSHUN? CONSIDER MOVING TO FINLAND
Source: GizaDeathStar.com
Dr. Joseph P. Farrell
September 1, 2016

OK… I realize I’ve been ranting about Amairikuhn edgykayshun above my normal allocation of one rant per month, but then Mr. M.H. sent this article, which I read, and I simply have to pass it along, because it is saying essentially everything that critics of the Amairikuhn “system” of edgykayshun – from John Taylor Gotto to my co-author, Gary Lawrence and I, in our most recent book, Rotten to the (Common) Core – have said. Indeed, in our book, Dr. Lawrence concluded with an entire chapter on “more is not better.” More homework, more standardized tests, more in-class hours, more computers, more ebooks, are not better, and Finland is there not only to make the case, but to make it in spades, for the Scandinavian nation consistently scores at the top of the world for education, utilizing a system that has none of the hallmarks of its American counterpart:

This is why Finland has the best schools

In case you missed them, consider these statements:

Finland has a history of producing the highest global test scores in the Western world, as well as a trophy case full of other recent No 1 global rankings, including most literate nation.

In Finland, children don’t receive formal academic training until the age of seven. Until then, many are in day care and learn through play, songs, games and conversation. Most children walk or bike to school, even the youngest. School hours are short and homework is generally light.

Unlike in the United States, where many schools are slashing recess, schoolchildren in Finland have a mandatory 15-minute outdoor free-play break every hour of every day. Fresh air, nature and regular physical activity breaks are considered engines of learning. According to one Finnish maxim: “There is no bad weather. Only inadequate clothing.”

And my personal favorite:

Finland doesn’t waste time or money on low-quality mass standardised testing. Instead, children are assessed every day, through direct observation, check-ins and quizzes by the highest-quality “personalised learning device” ever created – flesh-and-blood teachers. (Emphasis added)

So, what do we have?

1) consistently high achievement educationally in all areas when compared to other nations spending(wasting) billions on stupid fads like standardized tests and Common Core (think the USSA here);

2) light homework

3) less time spent in class

4) teaching by real human beings and not computers

5) no to few standardized tests

But you can add yet another bit of  information for the reason for Finland’s success:

Our mission as adults is to protect our children from politicians,” one Finnish childhood education professor told me. “We also have an ethical and moral responsibility to tell businesspeople to stay out of our building. (Emphasis added)

In fact, any Finnish citizen is free to visit any school whenever they like, but her message was clear: Educators are the ultimate authorities on education, not bureaucrats, and not technology vendors.

In other words, Finland has told Mr. Gates, Mr. Zuckerberg and billionaire busybodies and politicians, to take a hike, and has opened its schools and classrooms to the parents.

One is tempted, when reading this, to conclude that Finland took one look at America, and the “Amairikuhn edgykayshun sistum” and concluded “we don’t want any of that here.” The result is a system that respects children, parents, and the all-important role of the human teacher, a system that relies on little standardized testing, a stress-free classroom environment, and a culture that realizes that big corporate capitalist “solutions” are seldom beneficial to the people it falsely claims to serve.

And the other result is a consistently high standard of performance and a system that works.

It’s time for the USSA to learn this lesson: the progressivist educators, with their batteries of teachers colleges, certification requirements, standardized tests, and a system run by and for the bureaucrats and businessmen, are turning the USSA into a third world cesspool of stupidity and mediocrity.

The system needs to be scrapped, and the billionaire busybodies removed from the process.

 Read More At: GizaDeathStar.com
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Profile photo of Joseph P. Farrell
Joseph P. Farrell has a doctorate in patristics from the University of Oxford, and pursues research in physics, alternative history and science, and “strange stuff”. His book The Giza DeathStar, for which the Giza Community is named, was published in the spring of 2002, and was his first venture into “alternative history and science”.

 

Amairikuhn Edgykayshun’s Fassinashun Wit’ Teknologee

AMAIRIKUHN EDGYKAYSHUN’S FASSINASHUN WIT’ TEKNOLOGEE
GizaDeathStar.com

Dr. Joseph P. Farrell
August 27, 2016

OK, I know, it’s too early for another rant on Amairkuhn Edgykayshun and the billionaire busybodies like Bill Gates who want to hurry the process of ruination and dumbing down even more, by more injections of technology. But I have to rant anyway, and you’ll probably want to join me after you finish reading this study that was sent to me by Mr. S.D.H. Only in this case, we’re talking not just about the dumbing down of Amairkuhn edgykayshun, but also about its numbing down:

Background and Documentation for Parents Across America EdTech Position Paper: Our Children @ Risk

What do I mean by dumbing down? Well, the above report, while lengthy, says it all, and I cite here a lengthy section from this article to drive the point home:

Impaired cognitive functioning:

Imaging studies have found less efficient information processing and reduced impulse inhibition (Dong & Devito 2013), increased sensitivity to rewards and insensitivity to loss (Dong & Devito 2013), and abnormal spontaneous brain activity associated with poor task performance (Yuan 2011).

In short, excessive screen-time appears to impair brain structure and function. Much of the damage occurs in the brain’s frontal lobe, which undergoes massive changes from puberty until the mid-twenties. Frontal lobe development, in turn, largely determines success in every area of life—from sense of well-being to academic or career success to relationship skills.

In other words, all this “screen time”, now enforced through Rotten to the Common Core’s individually adaptive computerized tests and “assessments”, is doing actual brain damage, and as a result, damage and impairment to children’s abilities to recognize and name their emotions. (And please note an additional thing that I’ve ranted about occasionally: note the use of completely inadequate methods of citation: this is now the [dumbed-down] standard in professional journals: one need no longer cite the article by title, magazine or journal, volume number, and actual page citation where the specific points are to be found, one need only cite the author and year of publication, and one does so by inserting a parenthetical expression in the main text itself, interrupting the smooth flow of argument and the “look on the page”!  Had I tried this “now acceptable” nonsense  in high school on my papers, Mrs. Connors would have returned the paper with a big red letter F for lack of adequate and proper scholarly citation.  But through the efforts of the “educators”, these shoddy methods are now considered acceptable. And I say, they are not. They need to be ditched, completely, and professional journals need to insist on the older style of referencing such as I use in my books. Period. End of discussion. No negotiation here.)

Referencing orthography problems aside, the focus of the article is clear: do we want to expose schoolchildren, whose brains are still developing, to the fallacy of “more” (as my co-author Gary Lawrence in Rotten to the (Common) Core put it), to more “obesity, sleep deprivation, mental illness, and radiation”(to cite the article once again). I think the answer is a perfectly clear “no!”

The most damaging study cited by the article, however, is this finding on “technology in the classroom”:

Last fall, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development published its first-ever, and one of the largest-ever, international analyses of student access to computers and how that relates to student learning. “Students who use computers very frequently at school do a lot worse in most learning outcomes, even after controlling for social background and student demographics.”

That’s right. Lots of computer time meant worse school performanceby a lot.

A little bit of computer use was modestly positive, the authors found. But countries that invested the most in technology for education in recent years showed “no appreciable results” in student achievement. And, striking at the root of one of the biggest claims made about tech in education, “perhaps the most disappointing finding in the report is that technology is of little help in bridging the skills divide between advantaged and disadvantaged students.”

(A) study published in July looked at high-achieving eighth-graders across North Carolina who had the opportunity to take Algebra I online. The study found that they did much worse than students who took the course face-to-face — about a third of a letter grade worse, in fact. The study author, Jennifer Heissel, a doctoral student at Northwestern University, noted that across education research, “There’s not a lot of cases where you see these big of drops in high-achieving students. Usually you can throw a lot at them.”

So, do we really want students to be spending more time with Bill and Melinda Gates via their computers and standardized tests and electronic textbooks? Well, as one person put it to me in a recent private email to me, not only are the tests proprietary, and hence, not subject to parental scrutiny, the fact that more and more schools are moving to electronic textbooks – amendable at the touch of a button, let us remember – little Johnny or Susie cannot come home and easily point to their schoolbook and ask parent for clarification in many cases, thus removing parental scrutiny from the “texts” themselves. Of course, currently many parents can probably access these “e-texts” via their home computers. But just wait for what’s coming down the pike, for you know it as well as I do: the “edugarchy” and their corporate billionaire busybody masters will next come up with some lame excuse to prohibit parents from that access. Remember, the game is total control, so that even parental access to textbook content will have to go inevitably, and the “e-textbook” is a convenient stepping stone to that end.

Recently someone asked me why I think so many modern American schoolchildren cannot, like, talk coherently, like, without like dropping like the word “like” into every, like, sentence, you, like, know, man? Well, like, consider this, like, explanation for the, like, phenomenon:

“Children learn to talk and communicate through interactions with other people. That’s the way it has always been and that’s the way it will continue to be, despite any new technology that comes our way. The first several years of life are crucial for your child’s language development. It is when their brain is the most receptive to learning new language and is building communication pathways that will be with them for the rest of their lives. Once that window closes, it is much more difficult for someone to learn and develop language skills. “Every minute that your child spends in front of a screen is one fewer minute that he could spend learning from your interactions with him or practicing his interactions with you. Screen time takes away from time that could (and should) be spent on person-to-person interactions. “Communication is about interacting with others, the give and take. The speaker responds to the listener’s body language and responses to change and adapt what they are saying. The listener uses non-verbal cues to gain deeper meaning from the speaker’s message. There is so much more going on than the list of vocabulary words that the lady in the video is teaching. Videos do not replace person-to-person interactions for teaching language or communication.”[Bold & Underline Emphasis Added Throughout]

Continue Reading At: GizaDeathStar.com
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Profile photo of Joseph P. Farrell
Joseph P. Farrell has a doctorate in patristics from the University of Oxford, and pursues research in physics, alternative history and science, and “strange stuff”. His book The Giza DeathStar, for which the Giza Community is named, was published in the spring of 2002, and was his first venture into “alternative history and science”.

Magic, Wonder, Science and Exploration: The Educational Value of Fairy Villages

6._building_a_temporary_village_outside_the_classroom_is_a_collaborative_effort_k.harrington

Source: TheGoodWitchesHomestead
July 13, 2016

Atop a hill at the center of our outdoor classroom at the Fiddleheads Forest School in Seattle, Washington, is a sprawling fairy village. Scramble up a looping pathway past a few western red cedars and a bed of native Mahonia and evergreen elderberry and you’re there. It’s a little metropolis, complete with gardens, a town circle (much better than a square, according to the students), a movie theater/restaurant (depending on who’s giving the tour), and even a towering “Space Needle” in honor of our city’s most prominent landmark. The place grows and changes with each passing week. Children collect items from the surrounding area and put them carefully and purposefully around the village. The fairy village has been central to the life of our classroom since it came into existence, and the educational opportunities it affords the children make it worth exploring.

Imaginative Play and Possibility

fiddleheads_fairy_village_small

A view of the Fiddleheads fairy village.

There is an air of enormous possibility that surrounds the fairy village at our school. According to Tracy Kane, the author of a number of wonderful fairy house books including the laminated, weatherproof one we keep in our classroom, it is the “allure of nature’s enchantment” that can “spark our creativity and nourish our imaginations.” Students comb the grounds looking for signs that the fairies have been there; a displaced shell or a previously undiscovered stone is often enough to send them into a frenzy of discussion and activity: “The fairies came! The fairies came!” reverberates throughout the classroom until the students are all drawn up to the village. They gather together, positively vibrating with excitement, and get right to work assigning tasks: “Okay, Colin and I are going to make more things for the fairies. Charley, do you want to write the letter to them? Who can help Mason dig the hole for the ocean? Let’s see, oh look—that’s a great stick to use! It’s a great stick, the fairies will love it.

2._tending_to_the_needs_of_a_tiny_world_shTending to the needs of a tiny world.

I believe the simple joy derived from magical experiences can be traced to the idea that anything is possible. From the perspective of the children, there is a sense that if tiny creatures might arrive and use their magic to effect change on the world, then who knows what other surprises each day has in store? Children want to believe because the act of believing itself is exciting; it offers enormous opportunity for learning and play.

But whether or not the children believe in fairies is often unimportant. Once they have encountered something that is potentially magical, the role the students embody in their imaginative play becomes that of an individual who believes in fairies and is attending to their happiness. Discussions about the existence of fairies can wait for another time, because the game is afoot.

The Child’s Domain: Self-Directed Skill Building

3._knot_tying_requires_this_students_full_concentration_and_effort_khSo much of the world is off-limits to children, but the fairy village is their domain. Annie Quest, a social pragmatics teacher who spent years running fairy camps in the green mountains of Vermont, explained the attraction for her as a child: “I felt small, [and] fairies are small, but they’re very powerful. They’re much tinier than people, but they can turn anything in nature into things that are useful for themselves.” In some ways, the most magical element of the fairy village is its ability to give children the sort of control over a whole world that they so often struggle to achieve in their own lives. In the land of fairies, only the children decide when it is bedtime.

Knot tying requires full concentration and effort.

Embedded in the act of creation is consideration of the needs and wants of others. The children practice empathy through experiencing caring for this imagined other; it gives substance and purposefulness to their work. “Here, these shells can be a table so they will have a place to eat, and okay, now there is a table so it needs plates, and here these little hemlock cones will be the food—now how are we going to build chairs for them to sit on?” The number and variety of things that need attending to stretches infinitely into the imagination: tiny cradles for baby fairies need blankets to keep the infants warm, roofs are required to protect the inhabitants from wind and rain, new fairies must be built from sticks and cloth so that the others will have friends, even the problem of electricity must be addressed!

The precision required to build these little homes encourages concentration and fine motor development. Because the work is creative and self-directed, the children are likely to engage far longer than they might with a traditional fine motor work. The author Tracy Kane echoed this in her own experience, remembering how “One boy brushed his dog for a week to create a soft floor for the fairies.” Activities such as scooping, pinching, threading, weaving, and tying are inherently a part of construction, and as the children’s skills are refined, so are the finished products that they create.

Over the past two years, the fairy village at our school has mirrored the development of the children around it, transforming from a pile of objects that the children gathered from around the classroom into a true “village” in which the residents are constructed from twigs, twine, and small bits of cloth. For the 3-year-old child, a finished product may look more like a pile of sticks to the untrained eye, whereas an older student of 4 or 5 will regularly take on a more elaborate design, knotting twine and weaving bark through posts for walls. Often the older students will support the younger ones, perhaps by demonstrating how to twist a stick like a drill to get it into the ground properly or helping to dig around a particularly difficult rock.

 Continue Reading At: GoodWitchesHomesteadm.com